ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]- The length of the take-off run available plus the length of the stopway if provided.
ACKNOWLEDGE- Let me know that you have received my message.
ACKNOWLEDGE [ICAO]- Let me know that you have received and understood this message.
ACROBATIC FLIGHT- An intentional maneuver involving an abrupt change in an aircraft's attitude, an abnormal attitude, or abnormal acceleration not necessary for normal flight.
ACROBATIC FLIGHT [ICAO]- Maneuvers intentionally performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal variation in speed.
ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME- ACLT is a flight's frozen calculated landing time. An actual time determined at freeze calculated landing time (FCLT) or meter list display interval (MLDI) for the adapted vertex for each arrival aircraft based upon runway configuration, airport acceptance rate, airport arrival delay period, and other metered arrival aircraft. This time is either the vertex time of arrival (VTA) of the aircraft or the tentative calculated landing time (TCLT)/ACLT of the previous aircraft plus the arrival aircraft interval (AAI), whichever is later. This time will not be updated in response to the aircraft's progress.
ADDITIONAL SERVICES- Advisory information provided by ATC which includes but is not limited to the following:
a. Traffic advisories.
b. Vectors, when requested by the pilot, to assist aircraft receiving traffic advisories to avoid observed traffic.
c. Altitude deviation information of 300 feet or more from an assigned altitude as observed on a verified (reading correctly) automatic altitude readout (Mode C.)
d. Advisories that traffic is no longer a factor.
e. Weather and chaff information.
f. Weather assistance.
g. Bird activity information.
h. Holding pattern surveillance. Additional services are provided to the extent possible contingent only upon the controller's capability to fit them into the performance of higher priority duties and on the basis of limitations of the radar, volume of traffic, frequency congestion, and controller workload. The controller has complete discretion for determining if he/she is able to provide or continue to provide a service in a particular case. The controller's reason not to provide or continue to provide a service in a particular case is not subject to question by the pilot and need not be made known to him/her.
ADMINISTRATOR- The Federal Aviation Administrator or any person to whom he/she has delegated his/her authority in the matter concerned.
ADVISE INTENTIONS- Tell me what you plan to do.
ADVISORY- Advice and information provided to assist pilots in the safe conduct of flight and aircraft movement.
ADVISORY FREQUENCY- The appropriate frequency to be used for Airport Advisory Service.
ADVISORY SERVICE- Advice and information provided by a facility to assist pilots in the safe conduct of flight and aircraft movement.
AERIAL REFUELING- A procedure used by the military to transfer fuel from one aircraft to another during flight.
(Refer to VFR/IFR Wall Planning Charts.)
AERODROME- A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and movement of aircraft.
AERODROME BEACON [ICAO]- Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.
AERODROME CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]- Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.
AERODROME CONTROL TOWER [ICAO]- A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic.
AERODROME ELEVATION [ICAO]- The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.
AERODROME TRAFFIC CIRCUIT [ICAO]- The specified path to be flown by aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
AERONAUTICAL BEACON- A visual NAVAID displaying flashes of white and/or colored light to indicate the location of an airport, a heliport, a landmark, a certain point of a Federal airway in mountainous terrain, or an obstruction.
AERONAUTICAL CHART- A map used in air navigation containing all or part of the following: topographic features, hazards and obstructions, navigation aids, navigation routes, designated airspace, and airports. Commonly used aeronautical charts are:
a. Sectional Aeronautical Charts (1:500,000)- Designed for visual navigation of slow or medium speed aircraft. Topographic information on these charts features the portrayal of relief and a judicious selection of visual check points for VFR flight. Aeronautical information includes visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, controlled airspace, restricted areas, obstructions, and related data.
b. VFR Terminal Area Charts (1:250,000)- Depict Class B airspace which provides for the control or segregation of all the aircraft within Class B airspace. The chart depicts topographic information and aeronautical information which includes visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, controlled airspace, restricted areas, obstructions, and related data.
c. World Aeronautical Charts (WAC) (1:1,000,000)- Provide a standard series of aeronautical charts covering land areas of the world at a size and scale convenient for navigation by moderate speed aircraft. Topographic information includes cities and towns, principal roads, railroads, distinctive landmarks, drainage, and relief. Aeronautical information includes visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, airways, restricted areas, obstructions, and other pertinent data.
d. En Route Low Altitude Charts- Provide aeronautical information for en route instrument navigation (IFR) in the low altitude stratum. Information includes the portrayal of airways, limits of controlled airspace, position identification and frequencies of radio aids, selected airports, minimum en route and minimum obstruction clearance altitudes, airway distances, reporting points, restricted areas, and related data. Area charts, which are a part of this series, furnish terminal data at a larger scale in congested areas.
e. En Route High Altitude Charts- Provide aeronautical information for en route instrument navigation (IFR) in the high altitude stratum. Information includes the portrayal of jet routes, identification and frequencies of radio aids, selected airports, distances, time zones, special use airspace, and related information.
f. Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP) Charts- Portray the aeronautical data which is required to execute an instrument approach to an airport. These charts depict the procedures, including all related data, and the airport diagram. Each procedure is designated for use with a specific type of electronic navigation system including NDB, TACAN, VOR, ILS/MLS, and RNAV. These charts are identified by the type of navigational aid(s) which provide final approach guidance.
g. Instrument Departure Procedure (DP) Charts- Designed to expedite clearance delivery and to facilitate transition between takeoff and en route operations. Each DP is presented as a separate chart and may serve a single airport or more than one airport in a given geographical location.
h. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) Charts- Designed to expedite air traffic control arrival procedures and to facilitate transition between en route and instrument approach operations. Each STAR procedure is presented as a separate chart and may serve a single airport or more than one airport in a given geographical location.
i. Airport Taxi Charts- Designed to expedite the efficient and safe flow of ground traffic at an airport. These charts are identified by the official airport name; e.g., Washington National Airport.
AERONAUTICAL CHART [ICAO]- A representation of a portion of the earth, its culture and relief, specifically designated to meet the requirements of air navigation.
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL- A primary FAA publication whose purpose is to instruct airmen about operating in the National Airspace System of the U.S. It provides basic flight information, ATC Procedures and general instructional information concerning health, medical facts, factors affecting flight safety, accident and hazard reporting, and types of aeronautical charts and their use.
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION [AIP] [ICAO]- A publication issued by or with the authority of a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.
AIM- AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
AIP [ICAO]- AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICATION
AIRBORNE DELAY- Amount of delay to be encountered in airborne holding.
AIR CARRIER DISTRICT OFFICE- An FAA field office serving an assigned geographical area, staffed with Flight Standards personnel serving the aviation industry and the general public on matters related to the certification and operation of scheduled air carriers and other large aircraft operations.
AIRCRAFT- Device(s) that are used or intended to be used for flight in the air, and when used in air traffic control terminology, may include the flight crew.
AIRCRAFT [ICAO]- Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth's surface.
AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY- A grouping of aircraft based on a speed of 1.3 times the stall speed in the landing configuration at maximum gross landing weight. An aircraft shall fit in only one category. If it is necessary to maneuver at speeds in excess of the upper limit of a speed range for a category, the minimums for the next higher category should be used. For example, an aircraft which falls in Category A, but is circling to land at a speed in excess of 91 knots, should use the approach Category B minimums when circling to land. The categories are as follows:
a. Category A- Speed less than 91 knots.
b. Category B- Speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots.
c. Category C- Speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots.
d. Category D- Speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots.
e. Category E- Speed 166 knots or more.
(Refer to Part 97.)
AIRCRAFT CLASSES- For the purposes of Wake Turbulence Separation Minima, ATC classifies aircraft as Heavy, Large, and Small as follows:
a. Heavy- Aircraft capable of takeoff weights of more than 255,000 pounds whether or not they are operating at this weight during a particular phase of flight.
b. Large- Aircraft of more than 41,000 pounds, maximum certificated takeoff weight, up to 255,000 pounds.
c. Small- Aircraft of 41,000 pounds or less maximum certificated takeoff weight.
AIRCRAFT SITUATION DISPLAY- ASD is a computer system that receives radar track data from all 20 CONUS ARTCC's, organizes this data into a mosaic display, and presents it on a computer screen. The display allows the traffic management coordinator multiple methods of selection and highlighting of individual aircraft or groups of aircraft. The user has the option of superimposing these aircraft positions over any number of background displays. These background options include ARTCC boundaries, any stratum of en route sector boundaries, fixes, airways, military and other special use airspace, airports, and geopolitical boundaries. By using the ASD, a coordinator can monitor any number of traffic situations or the entire systemwide traffic flows.
AIRCRAFT SURGE LAUNCH AND RECOVERY- Procedures used at USAF bases to provide increased launch and recovery rates in instrument flight rules conditions. ASLAR is based on:
a. Reduced separation between aircraft which is based on time or distance. Standard arrival separation applies between participants including multiple flights until the DRAG point. The DRAG point is a published location on an ASLAR approach where aircraft landing second in a formation slows to a predetermined airspeed. The DRAG point is the reference point at which MARSA applies as expanding elements effect separation within a flight or between subsequent participating flights.
b. ASLAR procedures shall be covered in a Letter of Agreement between the responsible USAF military ATC facility and the concerned Federal Aviation Administration facility. Initial Approach Fix spacing requirements are normally addressed as a minimum.
AIR DEFENSE EMERGENCY- A military emergency condition declared by a designated authority. This condition exists when an attack upon the continental U.S., Alaska, Canada, or U.S. installations in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place.
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE- The area of airspace over land or water, extending upward from the surface, within which the ready identification, the location, and the control of aircraft are required in the interest of national security.
a. Domestic Air Defense Identification Zone. An ADIZ within the United States along an international boundary of the United States.
b. Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone. An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the United States.
c. Distant Early Warning Identification Zone (DEWIZ.) An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the State of Alaska.
ADIZ locations and operating and flight plan requirements for civil aircraft operations are specified in FAR Part 99.
AIRMET- In-flight weather advisories issued only to amend the area forecast concerning weather phenomena which are of operational interest to all aircraft and potentially hazardous to aircraft having limited capability because of lack of equipment, instrumentation, or pilot qualifications. AIRMET's concern weather of less severity than that covered by SIGMET's or Convective SIGMET's. AIRMET's cover moderate icing, moderate turbulence, sustained winds of 30 knots or more at the surface, widespread areas of ceilings less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles, and extensive mountain obscurement.
AIR NAVIGATION FACILITY- Any facility used in, available for use in, or designed for use in, aid of air navigation, including landing areas, lights, any apparatus or equipment for disseminating weather information, for signaling, for radio-directional finding, or for radio or other electrical communication, and any other structure or mechanism having a similar purpose for guiding or controlling flight in the air or the landing and take-off of aircraft.
AIRPORT- An area on land or water that is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft and includes its buildings and facilities, if any.
AIRPORT ACCEPTANCE RATE- A dynamic input parameter specifying the number of arriving aircraft which an airport or airspace can accept from the ARTCC per hour. The AAR is used to calculate the desired interval between successive arrival aircraft.
AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA- The area within ten miles of an airport without a control tower or where the tower is not in operation, and on which a Flight Service Station is located.
AIRPORT ELEVATION- The highest point of an airport's usable runways measured in feet from mean sea level.
AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY- A publication designed primarily as a pilot's operational manual containing all airports, seaplane bases, and heliports open to the public including communications data, navigational facilities, and certain special notices and procedures. This publication is issued in seven volumes according to geographical area.
AIRPORT INFORMATION DESK- An airport unmanned facility designed for pilot self-service briefing, flight planning, and filing of flight plans.
AIRPORT LIGHTING- Various lighting aids that may be installed on an airport. Types of airport lighting include:
a. Approach Light System (ALS)- An airport lighting facility which provides visual guidance to landing aircraft by radiating light beams in a directional pattern by which the pilot aligns the aircraft with the extended centerline of the runway on his final approach for landing. Condenser-Discharge Sequential Flashing Lights/Sequenced Flashing Lights may be installed in conjunction with the ALS at some airports. Types of Approach Light Systems are:
1. ALSF-1- Approach Light System with Sequenced Flashing Lights in ILS Cat-I configuration.
2. ALSF-2- Approach Light System with Sequenced Flashing Lights in ILS Cat-II configuration. The ALSF-2 may operate as an SSALR when weather conditions permit.
3. SSALF- Simplified Short Approach Light System with Sequenced Flashing Lights.
4. SSALR- Simplified Short Approach Light System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.
5. MALSF- Medium Intensity Approach Light System with Sequenced Flashing Lights.
6. MALSR- Medium Intensity Approach Light System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.
7. LDIN- Lead-in-light system- Consists of one or more series of flashing lights installed at or near ground level that provides positive visual guidance along an approach path, either curving or straight, where special problems exist with hazardous terrain, obstructions, or noise abatement procedures.
8. RAIL- Runway Alignment Indicator Lights- Sequenced Flashing Lights which are installed only in combination with other light systems.
9. ODALS- Omnidirectional Approach Lighting System consists of seven omnidirectional flashing lights located in the approach area of a nonprecision runway. Five lights are located on the runway centerline extended with the first light located 300 feet from the threshold and extending at equal intervals up to 1,500 feet from the threshold. The other two lights are located, one on each side of the runway threshold, at a lateral distance of 40 feet from the runway edge, or 75 feet from the runway edge when installed on a runway equipped with a VASI.
b. Runway Lights/Runway Edge Lights- Lights having a prescribed angle of emission used to define the lateral limits of a runway. Runway lights are uniformly spaced at intervals of approximately 200 feet, and the intensity may be controlled or preset.
c. Touchdown Zone Lighting- Two rows of transverse light bars located symmetrically about the runway centerline normally at 100 foot intervals. The basic system extends 3,000 feet along the runway.
d. Runway Centerline Lighting- Flush centerline lights spaced at 50-foot intervals beginning 75 feet from the landing threshold and extending to within 75 feet of the opposite end of the runway.
e. Threshold Lights- Fixed green lights arranged symmetrically left and right of the runway centerline, identifying the runway threshold.
f. Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL)- Two synchronized flashing lights, one on each side of the runway threshold, which provide rapid and positive identification of the approach end of a particular runway.
g. Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)- An airport lighting facility providing vertical visual approach slope guidance to aircraft during approach to landing by radiating a directional pattern of high intensity red and white focused light beams which indicate to the pilot that he is "on path" if he sees red/white, "above path" if white/white, and "below path" if red/red. Some airports serving large aircraft have three-bar VASI's which provide two visual glide paths to the same runway.
h. Boundary Lights- Lights defining the perimeter of an airport or landing area.
AIRPORT MARKING AIDS- Markings used on runway and taxiway surfaces to identify a specific runway, a runway threshold, a centerline, a hold line, etc. A runway should be marked in accordance with its present usage such as:
AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT (ARP) - The approximate geometric center of all usable runway surfaces.
AIRPORT RESERVATION OFFICE- Office responsible for monitoring the operation of the high density rule. Receives and processes requests for IFR operations at high density traffic airports.
AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON- A visual NAVAID operated at many airports. At civil airports, alternating white and green flashes indicate the location of the airport. At military airports, the beacons flash alternately white and green, but are differentiated from civil beacons by dualpeaked (two quick) white flashes between the green flashes.
AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT- Radar equipment specifically designed to detect all principal features on the surface of an airport, including aircraft and vehicular traffic, and to present the entire image on a radar indicator console in the control tower. Used to augment visual observation by tower personnel of aircraft and/or vehicular movements on runways and taxiways.
AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR- Approach control radar used to detect and display an aircraft's position in the terminal area. ASR provides range and azimuth information but does not provide elevation data. Coverage of the ASR can extend up to 60 miles.
AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE- A service provided by a control tower for aircraft operating on the movement area and in the vicinity of an airport.
AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR- Air route traffic control center (ARTCC) radar used primarily to detect and display an aircraft's position while en route between terminal areas. The ARSR enables controllers to provide radar air traffic control service when aircraft are within the ARSR coverage. In some instances, ARSR may enable an ARTCC to provide terminal radar services similar to but usually more limited than those provided by a radar approach control.
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER- A facility established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace and principally during the en route phase of flight. When equipment capabilities and controller workload permit, certain advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft.
AIRSPACE HIERARCHY- Within the airspace classes, there is a hierarchy and, in the event of an overlap of airspace: Class A preempts Class B, Class B preempts Class C, Class C preempts Class D, Class D preempts Class E, and Class E preempts Class G.
AIRSPEED- The speed of an aircraft relative to its surrounding air mass. The unqualified term "airspeed" means one of the following:
a. Indicated Airspeed- The speed shown on the aircraft airspeed indicator. This is the speed used in pilot/controller communications under the general term "airspeed."
b. True Airspeed- The airspeed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air. Used primarily in flight planning and en route portion of flight. When used in pilot/controller communications, it is referred to as "true airspeed" and not shortened to "airspeed."
AIRSTART- The starting of an aircraft engine while the aircraft is airborne, preceded by engine shutdown during training flights or by actual engine failure.
AIR TAXI- Used to describe a helicopter/VTOL aircraft movement conducted above the surface but normally not above 100 feet AGL. The aircraft may proceed either via hover taxi or flight at speeds more than 20 knots. The pilot is solely responsible for selecting a safe airspeed/altitude for the operation being conducted.
AIR TRAFFIC- Aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas.
AIR TRAFFIC [ICAO]- All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.
AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE- An authorization by air traffic control for the purpose of preventing collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace. The pilot-in-command of an aircraft may not deviate from the provisions of a visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules (IFR) air traffic clearance except in an emergency or unless an amended clearance has been obtained. Additionally, the pilot may request a different clearance from that which has been issued by air traffic control (ATC) if information available to the pilot makes another course of action more practicable or if aircraft equipment limitations or company procedures forbid compliance with the clearance issued. Pilots may also request clarification or amendment, as appropriate, any time a clearance is not fully understood, or considered unacceptable because of safety of flight. Controllers should, in such instances and to the extent of operational practicality and safety, honor the pilot's request. FAR Part 91.3(a) states: "The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft." THE PILOT IS RESPONSIBLE TO REQUEST AN AMENDED CLEARANCE if ATC issues a clearance that would cause a pilot to deviate from a rule or regulation, or in the pilot's opinion, would place the aircraft in jeopardy.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL- A service operated by appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CLEARANCE [ICAO]- Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit.
NOTE 1: For convenience, the term air traffic control clearance is frequently abbreviated to clearance when used in appropriate contexts.
NOTE 2: The abbreviated term clearance may be prefixed by the words taxi, takeoff, departure, en route, approach or landing to indicate the particular portion of flight to which the air traffic control clearance relates.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]- A service provided for the purpose of:
a. Preventing collisions:
1. Between aircraft; and
2. On the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions; and
b. Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALIST- A person authorized to provide air traffic control service.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM COMMAND CENTER- An Air Traffic Operations Service facility consisting of four operational units.
a. Central Flow Control Function (CFCF). Responsible for coordination and approval of all major intercenter flow control restrictions on a system basis in order to obtain maximum utilization of the airspace.
b. Central Altitude Reservation Function (CARF). Responsible for coordinating, planning, and approving special user requirements under the Altitude Reservation (ALTRV) concept.
c. Airport Reservation Office (ARO). Responsible for approving IFR flights at designated high density traffic airports (John F. Kennedy, LaGuardia, O'Hare, and Washington National) during specified hours.
d. ATC Contingency Command Post. A facility which enables the FAA to manage the ATC system when significant portions of the system's capabilities have been lost or are threatened.
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE- A generic term meaning:
a. Flight Information Service:
b. Alerting Service:
c. Air Traffic Advisory Service:
d. Air Traffic Control Service:
1. Area Control Service,
2. Approach Control Service, or
3. Airport Control Service.
AIRWAY- A Class E airspace area established in the form of a corridor, the centerline of which is defined by radio navigational aids.
AIRWAY [ICAO]- A control area or portion thereof established in the form of corridor equipped with radio navigational aids.
AIRWAY BEACON- Used to mark airway segments in remote mountain areas. The light flashes Morse Code to identify the beacon site.
ALERFA (Alert Phase) [ICAO]- A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants.
ALERT NOTICE- A request originated by a flight service station (FSS) or an air route traffic control center (ARTCC) for an extensive communication search for overdue, unreported, or missing aircraft.
ALERTING SERVICE- A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid and assist such organizations as required.
ALONG TRACK DISTANCE (LTD) - The distance measured from a point-in-space by systems using area navigation reference capabilities that are not subject to slant range errors.
ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY- Letters and numerals used to show identification, altitude, beacon code, and other information concerning a target on a radar display.
ALTERNATE AERODROME [ICAO]- An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.
NOTE: The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an en-route or a destination alternate aerodrome for the flight.
ALTERNATE AIRPORT- An airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable.
ALTIMETER SETTING- The barometric pressure reading used to adjust a pressure altimeter for variations in existing atmospheric pressure or to the standard altimeter setting (29.92.)
ALTITUDE- The height of a level, point, or object measured in feet Above Ground Level (AGL) or from Mean Sea Level (MSL.)
a. MSL Altitude- Altitude expressed in feet measured from mean sea level.
b. AGL Altitude- Altitude expressed in feet measured above ground level.
c. Indicated Altitude- The altitude as shown by an altimeter. On a pressure or barometric altimeter it is altitude as shown uncorrected for instrument error and uncompensated for variation from standard atmospheric conditions.
ALTITUDE [ICAO]- The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MSL.)
ALTITUDE READOUT- An aircraft's altitude, transmitted via the Mode C transponder feature, that is visually displayed in 100-foot increments on a radar scope having readout capability.
ALTITUDE RESERVATION- Airspace utilization under prescribed conditions normally employed for the mass movement of aircraft or other special user requirements which cannot otherwise be accomplished. ALTRV's are approved by the appropriate FAA facility.
ALTITUDE RESTRICTION- An altitude or altitudes, stated in the order flown, which are to be maintained until reaching a specific point or time. Altitude restrictions may be issued by ATC due to traffic, terrain, or other airspace considerations.
ALTITUDE RESTRICTIONS ARE CANCELED- Adherence to previously imposed altitude restrictions is no longer required during a climb or descent.
APPROACH CLEARANCE- Authorization by ATC for a pilot to conduct an instrument approach. The type of instrument approach for which a clearance and other pertinent information is provided in the approach clearance when required.
APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY- A terminal ATC facility that provides approach control service in a terminal area.
APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE- Air traffic control service provided by an approach control facility for arriving and departing VFR/IFR aircraft and, on occasion, en route aircraft. At some airports not served by an approach control facility, the ARTCC provides limited approach control service.
APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]- Air traffic control service for arriving or departing controlled flights.
APPROACH GATE- An imaginary point used within ATC as a basis for vectoring aircraft to the final approach course. The gate will be established along the final approach course 1 mile from the outer marker (or the fix used in lieu of the outer marker) on the side away from the airport for precision approaches and 1 mile from the final approach fix on the side away from the airport for nonprecision approaches. In either case when measured along the final approach course, the gate will be no closer than 5 miles from the landing threshold.
APPROACH SEQUENCE- The order in which aircraft are positioned while on approach or awaiting approach clearance.
APPROACH SEQUENCE [ICAO]- The order in which two or more aircraft are cleared to approach to land at the aerodrome.
APPROACH SPEED- The recommended speed contained in aircraft manuals used by pilots when making an approach to landing. This speed will vary for different segments of an approach as well as for aircraft weight and configuration.
APPROPRIATE ATS AUTHORITY [ICAO]- The relevant authority designated by the State responsible for providing air traffic services in the airspace concerned. In the United States, the "appropriate ATS authority" is the Program Director for Air Traffic Operations, ATO-1.
a. Regarding flight over the high seas: the relevant authority is the State of Registry.
b. Regarding flight over other than the high seas: the relevant authority is the State having sovereignty over the territory being overflown.
APPROPRIATE OBSTACLE CLEARANCE MINIMUM ALTITUDE- Any of the following:
Minimum IFR Altitude- MIA.
Minimum En Route Altitude- MEA.
Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude- MOCA.
Minimum Vectoring Altitude- MVA.
APPROPRIATE TERRAIN CLEARANCE MINIMUM ALTITUDE- Any of the following:
Minimum IFR Altitude- MIA.
Minimum En Route Altitude- MEA.
Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude- MOCA.
Minimum Vectoring Altitude- MVA.
APRON- A defined area on an airport or heliport intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance. With regard to seaplanes, a ramp is used for access to the apron from the water.
APRON [ICAO]- A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, refueling, parking or maintenance.
ARC- The track over the ground of an aircraft flying at a constant distance from a navigational aid by reference to distance measuring equipment (DME).
AREA CONTROL CENTER [ICAO]- An ICAO term for an air traffic control facility primarily responsible for ATC services being provided IFR aircraft during the en route phase of flight. The U.S. equivalent facility is an air route traffic control center (ARTCC).
AREA NAVIGATION- Area Navigation (RNAV) provides enhanced navigational capability to the pilot. RNAV equipment can compute the airplane position, actual track and ground speed and then provide meaningful information relative to a route of flight selected by the pilot. Typical equipment will provide the pilot with distance, time, bearing and crosstrack error relative to the selected "TO" or "active" waypoint and the selected route. Several distinctly different navigational systems with different navigational performance characteristics are capable of providing area navigational functions. Present day RNAV includes INS, LORAN, VOR/DME, and GPS systems. Modern multi-sensor systems can integrate one or more of the above systems to provide a more accurate and reliable navigational system. Due to the different levels of performance, area navigational capabilities can satisfy different levels of required navigational performance (RNP). The major types of equipment are:
a. VORTAC referenced or Course Line Computer (CLC) systems, which account for the greatest number of RNAV units in use. To function, the CLC must be within the service range of a VORTAC.
b. OMEGA/VLF, although two separate systems, can be considered as one operationally. A long-range navigation system based upon Very Low Frequency radio signals transmitted from a total of 17 stations worldwide.
c. Inertial (INS) systems, which are totally self-contained and require no information from external references. They provide aircraft position and navigation information in response to signals resulting from inertial effects on components within the system.
d. MLS Area Navigation (MLS/RNAV), which provides area navigation with reference to an MLS ground facility.
e. LORAN-C is a long-range radio navigation system that uses ground waves transmitted at low frequency to provide user position information at ranges of up to 600 to 1,200 nautical miles at both en route and approach altitudes. The usable signal coverage areas are determined by the signal-to-noise ratio, the envelope-to- cycle difference, and the geometric relationship between the positions of the user and the transmitting stations.
f. GPS-is a space-base radio positioning, navigation, and time-transfer system. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information, and precise time, on a continuous global basis, to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. The system is unaffected by weather, and provides a worldwide common grid reference system.
AREA NAVIGATION [ICAO]- A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of station-referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these.
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) APPROACH CONFIGURATION:
a. STANDARD T- An RNAV approach whose design allows direct flight to any one of three initial approach fixes (IAF) and eliminates the need for procedure turns. The standard design is to align the procedure on the extended centerline with the missed approach point (MAP) at the runway threshold, the final approach fix (FAF), and the initial approach/intermediate fix (IAF/IF). The other two IAF's will be established perpendicular to the IF.
b. MODIFIED T- An RNAV approach design for single or multiple runways where terrain or operational constraints do not allow for the standard T. The "T" may be modified by increasing or decreasing the angle from the corner IAF(s) to the IF or by eliminating one or both corner IAF's.
c. STANDARD I- An RNAV approach design for a single runway with both corner IAF's eliminated. Course reversal or radar vectoring may be required at busy terminals with multiple runways.
d. TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREA (TAA)- The TAA is controlled airspace established in conjunction with the Standard or Modified T and I RNAV approach configurations. In the standard TAA, there are three areas: straight-in, left base, and right base. The arc boundaries of the three areas of the TAA are published portions of the approach and allow aircraft to transition from the en route structure direct to the nearest IAF. TAA's will also eliminate or reduce feeder routes, departure extensions, and procedure turns or course reversal.
1. STRAIGHT-IN AREA- A 30NM arc centered on the IF bounded by a straight line extending through the IF perpendicular to the intermediate course.
2. LEFT BASE AREA- A 30NM arc centered on the right corner IAF. The area shares a boundary with the straight-in area except that it extends out for 30NM from the IAF and is bounded on the other side by a line extending from the IF through the FAF to the arc.
3. RIGHT BASE AREA- A 30NM arc centered on the left corner IAF. The area shares a boundary with the straight-in area except that it extends out for 30NM from the IAF and is bounded on the other side by a line extending from the IF through the FAF to the arc.
ARINC- An acronym for Aeronautical Radio, Inc., a corporation largely owned by a group of airlines. ARINC is licensed by the FCC as an aeronautical station and contracted by the FAA to provide communications support for air traffic control and meteorological services in portions of international airspace.
ARMY AVIATION FLIGHT INFORMATION BULLETIN- A bulletin that provides air operation data covering Army, National Guard, and Army Reserve aviation activities.
ARRESTING SYSTEM- A safety device consisting of two major components, namely, engaging or catching devices and energy absorption devices for the purpose of arresting both tailhook and/or nontailhook-equipped aircraft. It is used to prevent aircraft from overrunning runways when the aircraft cannot be stopped after landing or during aborted takeoff. Arresting systems have various names; e.g., arresting gear, hook device, wire barrier cable.
ARRIVAL AIRCRAFT INTERVAL- An internally generated program in hundredths of minutes based upon the AAR. AAI is the desired optimum interval between successive arrival aircraft over the vertex.
ARRIVAL CENTER- The ARTCC having jurisdiction for the impacted airport.
ARRIVAL DELAY- A parameter which specifies a period of time in which no aircraft will be metered for arrival at the specified airport.
ARRIVAL SECTOR- An operational control sector containing one or more meter fixes.
ARRIVAL SECTOR ADVISORY LIST- An ordered list of data on arrivals displayed at the PVD/MDM of the sector which controls the meter fix.
ARRIVAL SEQUENCING PROGRAM- The automated program designed to assist in sequencing aircraft destined for the same airport.
ARRIVAL TIME- The time an aircraft touches down on arrival.
ARSR- AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR
ARTCC- AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER
ARTS- AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL SYSTEMS
ASD- AIRCRAFT SITUATION DISPLAY
ASDA- ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE
ASDE- AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT
ASLAR- AIRCRAFT SURGE LAUNCH AND RECOVERY
ASP- ARRIVAL SEQUENCING PROGRAM
ASR- AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR
ASR APPROACH-SURVEILLANCE APPROACH
ATC- AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
ATCAA- ATC ASSIGNED AIRSPACE
ATC ADVISES- Used to prefix a message of noncontrol information when it is relayed to an aircraft by other than an air traffic controller.
ATC ASSIGNED AIRSPACE- Airspace of defined vertical/lateral limits, assigned by ATC, for the purpose of providing air traffic segregation between the specified activities being conducted within the assigned airspace and other IFR air traffic.
ATC CLEARS- Used to prefix an ATC clearance when it is relayed to an aircraft by other than an air traffic controller.
ATC INSTRUCTIONS- Directives issued by air traffic control for the purpose of requiring a pilot to take specific actions; e.g., "Turn left heading two five zero," "Go around," "Clear the runway."
ATC REQUESTS- Used to prefix an ATC request when it is relayed to an aircraft by other than an air traffic controller.
ATCSCC- AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM COMMAND CENTER
ATCSCC DELAY FACTOR- The amount of delay calculated to be assigned prior to departure.
ATIS- AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE
ATS Route [ICAO]- A specified route designed for channelling the flow of traffic as necessary for the provision of air traffic services.
NOTE: The term "ATS Route" is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route, controlled or uncontrolled route, arrival or departure, etc.
AUTOLAND APPROACH- An autoland approach is a precision instrument approach to touchdown and, in some cases, through the landing rollout. An autoland approach is performed by the aircraft autopilot which is receiving position information and/or steering commands from onboard navigation equipment.
NOTE: Autoland and coupled approaches are flown in VFR and IFR. It is common for carriers to require their crews to fly coupled approaches and autoland approaches (if certified) when the weather conditions are less than approximately 4,000 RVR.
AUTOMATED INFORMATION TRANSFER- A precoordinated process, specifically defined in facility directives, during which a transfer of altitude control and/or radar identification is accomplished without verbal coordination between controllers using information communicated in a full data block.
AUTOMATED MUTUAL-ASSISTANCE VESSEL RESCUE SYSTEM- A facility which can deliver, in a matter of minutes, a surface picture (SURPIC) of vessels in the area of a potential or actual search and rescue incident, including their predicted positions and their characteristics.
AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL SYSTEMS- The generic term for the ultimate in functional capability afforded by several automation systems. Each differs in functional capabilities and equipment. ARTS plus a suffix roman numeral denotes a specific system. A following letter indicates a major modification to that system. In general, an ARTS displays for the terminal controller aircraft identification, flight plan data, other flight associated information; e.g., altitude, speed, and aircraft position symbols in conjunction with his radar presentation. Normal radar co-exists with the alphanumeric display. In addition to enhancing visualization of the air traffic situation, ARTS facilitate intra/inter-facility transfer and coordination of flight information. These capabilities are enabled by specially designed computers and subsystems tailored to the radar and communications equipments and operational requirements of each automated facility. Modular design permits adoption of improvements in computer software and electronic technologies as they become available while retaining the characteristics unique to each system.
a. ARTS II. A programmable nontracking, computer-aided display subsystem capable of modular expansion. ARTS II systems provide a level of automated air traffic control capability at terminals having low to medium activity. Flight identification and altitude may be associated with the display of secondary radar targets. The system has the capability of communicating with ARTCC's and other ARTS II, IIA, III, and IIIA facilities.
b. ARTS IIA. A programmable radar-tracking computer subsystem capable of modular expansion. The ARTS IIA detects, tracks, and predicts secondary radar targets. The targets are displayed by means of computer-generated symbols, ground speed, and flight plan data. Although it does not track primary radar targets, they are displayed coincident with the secondary radar as well as the symbols and alphanumerics. The system has the capability of communicating with ARTCC's and other ARTS II, IIA, III, and IIIA facilities.
c. ARTS III. The Beacon Tracking Level of the modular programmable automated radar terminal system in use at medium to high activity terminals. ARTS III detects, tracks, and predicts secondary radar-derived aircraft targets. These are displayed by means of computer-generated symbols and alphanumeric characters depicting flight identification, aircraft altitude, ground speed, and flight plan data. Although it does not track primary targets, they are displayed coincident with the secondary radar as well as the symbols and alphanumerics. The system has the capability of communicating with ARTCC's and other ARTS III facilities.
d. ARTS IIIA. The Radar Tracking and Beacon Tracking Level (RT&BTL) of the modular, programmable automated radar terminal system. ARTS IIIA detects, tracks, and predicts primary as well as secondary radar-derived aircraft targets. This more sophisticated computer-driven system upgrades the existing ARTS III system by providing improved tracking, continuous data recording, and fail-soft capabilities.
AUTOMATIC ALTITUDE REPORTING- That function of a transponder which responds to Mode C interrogations by transmitting the aircraft's altitude in 100-foot increments.
AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING SYSTEM- U.S. Navy final approach equipment consisting of precision tracking radar coupled to a computer data link to provide continuous information to the aircraft, monitoring capability to the pilot, and a backup approach system.
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER- An aircraft radio navigation system which senses and indicates the direction to a L/MF nondirectional radio beacon (NDB) ground transmitter. Direction is indicated to the pilot as a magnetic bearing or as a relative bearing to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft depending on the type of indicator installed in the aircraft. In certain applications, such as military, ADF operations may be based on airborne and ground transmitters in the VHF/UHF frequency spectrum.
AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE- The continuous broadcast of recorded noncontrol information in selected terminal areas. Its purpose is to improve controller effectiveness and to relieve frequency congestion by automating the repetitive transmission of essential but routine information; e.g., "Los Angeles information Alfa. One three zero zero Coordinated Universal Time. Weather, measured ceiling two thousand overcast, visibility three, haze, smoke, temperature seven one, dew point five seven, wind two five zero at five, altimeter two niner niner six. I-L-S Runway Two Five Left approach in use, Runway Two Five Right closed, advise you have Alfa."
AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE [ICAO]- The provision of current, routine information to arriving and departing aircraft by means of continuous and repetitive broadcasts throughout the day or a specified portion of the day.
AUTOROTATION- A rotorcraft flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion.
a. Autorotative Landing/Touchdown Autorotation. Used by a pilot to indicate that the landing will be made without applying power to the rotor.
b. Low Level Autorotation. Commences at an altitude well below the traffic pattern, usually below 100 feet AGL and is used primarily for tactical military training.
c. 180 degrees Autorotation. Initiated from a downwind heading and is commenced well inside the normal traffic pattern. "Go around" may not be possible during the latter part of this maneuver.
AVAILABLE LANDING DISTANCE (ALD)- The portion of a runway available for landing and roll-out for aircraft cleared for LAHSO. This distance is measured from the landing threshold to the hold-short point.
AVIATION WEATHER SERVICE- A service provided by the National Weather Service (NWS) and FAA which collects and disseminates pertinent weather information for pilots, aircraft operators, and ATC. Available aviation weather reports and forecasts are displayed at each NWS office and FAA FSS.
AZIMUTH (MLS)- A magnetic bearing extending from an MLS navigation facility.
NOTE: azimuth bearings are described as magnetic and are referred to as "azimuth" in radio telephone communications.
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